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Carcinogenic to humans Group 2A: Teflon is not actually the brand name of a pan; it's the name of the slippery stuff that DuPont sells to other companies. An increased rate of birth defects has been found in mothers working at DuPont.
Some of these agents may lead to cancer after only a very small exposure, while others might require intense exposure over many years. Lab studies Scientists get much of their data about whether something might cause cancer from lab studies in cell cultures and animals.
Nonstick pots and pans account for 70 percent of all cookware sold. Probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2B: Most of the agents on the lists have been linked only with certain kinds of cancer, not all types. Substances labeled as carcinogens may have different levels of cancer-causing potential.
These studies also provide useful information, but they have their limits. Medical treatments radiation and medicines including chemotherapy, hormone drugs, drugs that suppress the immune system, etc.
How do researchers determine if something is a carcinogen? Studies in people Another important way to identify carcinogens is through epidemiologic studies, which look at human populations to determine which factors might be linked to cancer.
What is a carcinogen?
As noted above, the type and extent of exposure to a substance may also play a role. Even at normal cooking temperatures, two of four brands of frying pans tested in a study cosponsored by DuPont gave off trace amounts of gaseous pfoa and other perfluorated chemicals.
Some may only cause cancer in people who have a certain genetic makeup. Used in thousands of products from cookware to kids' pajamas to takeout coffee cups, pfoa is a likely human carcinogen, according to a science panel commissioned by the Environmental Protection Agency.
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Although lab studies alone can't always predict if a substance will cause cancer in people, virtually all known human carcinogens that have been adequately tested also cause cancer in lab animals.
By combining data from both types of studies, scientists do their best to make an educated assessment of a substance's cancer-causing ability. It's very unlikely they know exactly what they've been exposed to or that they would be able to remember all of their exposures if asked by a researcher.
At degrees, Teflon fumes can kill birds; atthey can cause the flu-like "polymer fume fever" in humans.
It is not always clear if the results from animal studies will be the same for people as they are normally exposed to a substance.
But in some cases there simply isn't enough information to be certain one way or the other. The lists describe the level of evidence that something can cause cancer, not how likely it is that something will cause cancer in any particular person.
Chemicals similar to pfoa have recently turned up in water supplies of suburban Minneapolis and St.
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Instead, the ACS looks to national and international organizations such as the NTP and IARC, whose mission is to evaluate environmental cancer risks based on evidence from laboratory and human research studies. These lists also include many commonly used medicines, particularly some hormones and drugs used to treat cancer.
Who determines how carcinogens are classified? Probably not carcinogenic to humans Perhaps not surprisingly, based on how hard it can be to test these candidate carcinogens, most are listed as being of probable, possible, or unknown risk.
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